Piura is a city in northwestern Peru. It is the capital of the Piura Region and the Piura Province. It was here that Spanish Conqueror Francisco Pizarro founded the third Spanish city in South America and first in Peru, San Miguel de Piura, in July 1532. Piura declared its independence on 4 January 1821.
Like most of northern Peru, the territory of Piura has been inhabited by their autochthonous group of natives called tallanes and yungas. These lived without an organization or single leader to rule until the Muchik culture eventually took control, and the mixture of these evolved into the Vicús culture. Centuries later, Piura came under the rule of Tupac Inca Yupanqui for at least 40 years, and before the Spanish arrived.