The library was established in 1600 by Riccardo Romolo Riccardi. Formerly it belonged to the Riccardi family. The library has been located since 1670 in the Medicean palace on Via Larga. It was opened to the public service in 1715. Since 1813 until to the present day the library belongs to the Accademia
The library holds a copy of Pliny's Historia naturalis dating from the 10th century and an autograph MS. of the Florentine Histories of Niccolò Machiavelli. Also in the library are housed the biblical manuscripts: Minuscule 368, 369, and 370.