Borneo is the third largest island in the World
and is located north of Java, Indonesia
, at the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia
. The island is divided among three countries: Brunei
, Indonesia and Malaysia
. Approximately 73% of the island is Indonesian territory. The Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak in the north occupy about 26% of the island. The sovereign state of Brunei, located on the north coast, comprises about 1% of Borneo's land area. Borneo is home to one of the oldest rainforests in the world, along with the Daintree Rainforest in Australia
and the Amazon rainforest.
Borneo is surrounded by the South China
Sea to the north and northwest, the Sulu Sea to the northeast, the Celebes Sea and the Makassar
Strait to the east, and the Java Sea
and Karimata Strait to the south. With an area of 743,330 square kilometres (287,000 sq mi), it is the largest island in Maritime Southeast Asia. To the west of Borneo are the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra. To the south is Java. To the east is Sulawesi
, and to the northeast, the Philippines
. Borneo's highest point is Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, Malaysia, with an elevation of 4,095 m (13,435 ft) above sea level. It is the third highest peak in Southeast Asia, making Borneo the world's third highest island.
he Borneo rainforest is 130 million years old, making it the oldest rainforest in the world. There are about 15,000 species of flowering plants with 3,000 species of trees (267 species are dipterocarps), 221 species of terrestrial mammals and 420 species of resident birds in Borneo. It is the centre of evolution and radiation of many endemic species of plants and animals.
The Borneo rainforest is one of the only remaining natural habitats for the endangered Bornean Orangutan. It is an important refuge for many endemic forest species, including the Asian Elephant, the Sumatran Rhinoceros, the Bornean Clouded Leopard, the Hose's Civet and the Dayak
Fruit Bat. The World Wide Fund for Nature has stated that 361 animal and plant species have been discovered in Borneo since 1996.