Baluran National Park is located in Situbondo Regency, East Java, Indonesia. It has a relatively dry climate and mainly consists of savanna (40%), as well as lowland forests, mangrove forests and hills, with Mount Baluran (1,247m) as its highest peak. Baluran National Park is situated at the north-eastern extremity of Java, close to the islands of Bali and Madura.
The park is bordered by the Madura Strait to the north, the Bali Strait to the east, the river Bajulmati (Wonorejo village) to the west and the river Klokoran (Sumberanyar village) to the south. The park is a rough circle, with the extinct volcano, Baluran, at its centre. Its total area is 25,000 ha. It consists of five zones: the Main Zone (12,000 ha), the Wilderness Zone (5,537 ha, comprising 1,063 ha water and 4,574 ha land), the Intensive Utilization Zone (800 ha), the Specific Utilization Zone (5,780 ha) and the Rehabilitation Zone (783 ha).
Conservation and Threats:
The area has been protected since 1928, first initiated by the Dutch hunter A.H. Loedeboer. In 1937 it was declared a wildlife refuge by the Dutch colonial government. In 1980 the are has been declared a national park. Poaching poses a major threat to the wildlife in the park, especially to the decreasing Banteng population. According to ProFauna Indonesia, not only locals but also members of the military have been involved in poaching.