Ranchi (राँची) is the capital of the Indian state of Jharkhand. Ranchi was the centre of the Jharkhand movement for a separate state for the tribal regions of South Bihar, northern Orissa, Western West Bengal and the present eastern Chhattisgarh. Jharkhand State was formed on 15 November 2000 by carving the Bihar divisions of Chota Nagpur and Santhal Parganas. The name Ranchi comes from the original Oraon village Archi at the site. Archi derives from the Oraon word for bamboo grove or stave. According to legend, after an altercation with a spirit, a farmer beat the spirit with his bamboo stave or archi. The spirit shouted archi, archi, archi and vanished; Archi became Rachi, and Rachi became Ranchi.
Ranchi is located on the southern part of the Chota Nagpur plateau which forms the eastern edge of the Deccan plateau. Ranchi is referred to as the "City of Waterfalls", due to the presence of numerous large and small falls of around the close vicinity of the city. The most popular ones are Dassam Falls, Hundru Falls, Jonha Falls, Hirni Falls and Panchghagh Falls. The Subarnarekha River and its tributaries constitute the local river system. Dams in Kanke, Rukka and Hatia have been built over these channels to cater to the water requirements of majority the population.
- Rock garden & Kanke Dam (Gonda hills): Gonda Hill and Rock Garden is situated at a distance of about 4 km from Ranchi town on Ranchi Kanke Road. Rock Garden is carved out of the rocks of Gonda Hill and resembles its design to rock garden of Jaipur. At the base of the Hill is Kanke Dam.
- Hundru Falls: Hundru Fall is one of the most picturesque falls surrounding Ranchi. It is 45 km from Ranchi on Ranchi-Purulia Road. Here, the Subarnarekha river falls from a height of 320 feet. The pools at the bottom of the falls are favourite picnic and bathing spots.
- Jonha Falls: Jonha Falls is also known as Gautamdhara, is around 40 km from Ranchi. It is approachable by both Road and train. The fall can be admired by descending around 500 steps. There is a tourist rest house which contains Lord Buddha temple. The river Kanchi flows nearby.
- Panchghagh Falls: Panchghagh falls is on Ranchi-Chakradharpur Road about 6 km from Khunti. This fall consists of five streams formed in a row due to the breaking up of the Banai river which falls from a good height. Cemented walkways connect the different cataracts, of which stream 2 is the most popular while 5 is the biggest, though a bit inaccessible.
- Dassam Falls: Dassam falls is 34 km from Ranchi on Ranchi-Tata Road near a village called Taimara. Here, the Kachni river falls from an altitude of 144 feet. It is also known as Dassam Gagh.
- Hirni Falls: Another beautiful waterfall amidst forests about 70 km from Ranchi.
- Sita Fall: Adjacent to Jonha falls is Sita falls which can be seen at its best early in the morning.
- Pahari Mandir (Ranchi Hill): Ranchi Hill and Pahari Mandir is one of the landmark of Ranchi Town. The Shiva temple is situated on the top of the hill also known as Pahari Mandir. At the bottom of the hill is Ranchi Lake. Ranchi lake was excavated by Colonel Onsely in 1842.
- Birsa Jaiwik Udyaan(ZOO): Birsa Jaivik Udyan is situated at a distance of 16 km from Ranchi in Ranchi Ramgarh Road near Ormanjhi. Many species of animals, trees and plants can be seen here.
- Sun Temple: It is situated at a distance of 40 km on Ranchi Tata Road. It is built in the form of a Chariot with 18 wheels drawn by 7 white horses. It is surrounded by a pond which is used by devotees during Chhath Puja for worshipping of Sun.
- Angrabari (Amreshwar Dham): It is a temple consisting of the deity of Lord Shiva, Ram and Sita, Hanuman and Ganesh. It is situated near Khunti at a distance of about 40 km from Ranchi. The Shankracharya Swami Swarupanand Saraswati, having been captivated by serene, placid and celestial beauty of Angrabadi rechristened it as Amreshwar Dham.
- Devri Temple: A temple of Solha Bhuji Goddess Durga, is located on right side Ranchi-Tata highway(NH33) at 60 km from Ranchi. It is the only temple in Jharkhand where the religious rituals are performed by the Pahans (tribal priests) along with conventional Brahmins.
- GEL Church: Gossner Evangelical Lutheran Church in Chotanagpur, Assam in short G.E.L. Church on 2 November 1845 by four German Missionaries named Emil Schatz, Fredrik batsch, Augustus Brandt and E. Theodor Janke sent by Fr. Johaness Evangelista Gossner of Berlin. They arrived Ranchi and erected their tents and G.E.L. Church was inaugurated with church service on 2 November 1845.
Being a city of natural beauty and big industries, Ranchi attracts a lot of people from outside. Ranchi has a number of 5 star and 3 star hotels for their pleasant stay here. It has a multitude of budget hotels and motels for regular visitors which provide convenient accommodation and food with other amenities.
Ranchi has a humid subtropical climate. However, due to its position and the forests around the city, it is known for its pleasant climate. Its climate is the primary reason why Ranchi was once the summer capital of the undivided State of Bihar. Ranchi used to be a preferable hill station in the past. Temperature ranges from maximum 42 to 20°C during summer, and from 25 to 0°C during winter. December and January are the coolest months with temperature getting to freezing point in some places of the city. The annual rainfall is about 1430 mm (56.34 inches). From June to September the rainfall is about 1,100 mm.