Canal, also known by the nickname "The Highway to India
", is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt
, connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea
. Opened in November 1869 after 10 years of construction work, it allows transportation by water between Europe
without navigation around Africa
. The northern terminus is Port Said
and the southern terminus is Port Tawfik at the city of Suez. Ismailia
lies on its West Bank
, 3 km (1.9 mi) north of the half-way point.
When first built, the canal was 164 km (102 mi) long and 8 m (26 ft) deep. After multiple enlargements, the canal is 193.30 km (120.11 mi) long, 24 m (79 ft) deep and 205 metres (673 ft) wide as of 2010. It consists of the northern access channel of 22 km/14 mi, the canal itself of 162.25 km/100.82 mi and the southern access channel of 9 km/5.6 mi. The canal is single lane with passing places in Ballah By-Pass and in the Great Bitter Lake
. It contains no locks; seawater flows freely through the canal. In general, the canal north of the Bitter Lakes flows north in winter and south in summer. The current south of the lakes changes with the tide at Suez.
The canal is owned and maintained by the Suez Canal Authority (SCA) of Egypt. Under international treaty, it may be used "in time of war as in time of peace, by every vessel of commerce or of war, without distinction of flag."