The university was called Chengdu College of Geology (Chengdu Institute of Geology) before 1993. In May 2001, two other colleges amalgamated with the CDUT. CDUT was one of ministerial key universities under the leadership of the Ministry of Land and Resources before 2000.
It is now one of Sichuan Province's key universities. The CDUT campus is located at the center of Chenghua District of Chengdu City near the Shanghai-Chengdu Freeway. Presently, in addition to the main campus, CDUT has two non-adjacent campuses. With a major campus expansion in progress, the new campus will occupy an area of 1.33 km² around the present main and north campuses. The campus expansion will add a number of residence, teaching, and research facilities.