The massive, sheer cliffs of Wingate Sandstone have sweeping lines that intercept one another at varying angles in the rock. Large scale crossbedding indicates windswept drifted dunes of an ancient desert.
Sediment becomes rock when it is buried and compacted by overlying loads of other sediment. Individual sand or clay particles are cemented together by minerals in seeping ground water. Eventually, the cement of the rock is dissolved by weak acids in rainwater. Small cracks are widened by frost and plant roots. The rock washes away in chunks and particles. Weathering is part of the larger process of erosion.
Shallow holes in the cliff are excavated as water erosion removes more weakly cemented sand grains, leaving solution pockets and natural bridges.