St. Rose of Lima's Church or The Church of St. Rose of Lima is a Roman Catholic parish church in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York, located at 510 W. 165th Street, and Amsterdam Avenue, Manhattan, New York City. The parish was established in July 1901 by the Most Rev. Michael A. Corrigan, Archbishop of New York. A parish in Manhattan had already been dedicated to St. Rose of Lima in 1868, and another existed in Kensington, Brooklyn. Upon this parish's founding, the (now closed) Old St. Rose of Lima's Church (New York City) was simply known as St. Rose's to distinguish itself from this parish.
The Most Rev. Michael A. Corrigan had the double-height brick and stone Romanesque Revival-styke church built in 1902-1905 to designs by architect Joseph H. McGuire of 45 East 42nd Street for $70,000. Cardinal Farley dedicated the structure on December 10, 1905.
Next door at 100 West Amsterdam Avenue and 165th Street a four-story and basement brick and stone rectory was built in 1903-1904 to the designs by the same architect for $16,000. This building was completed and blessed by Msgr. Lavelle, V.G., on March 19, 1904.
The site for the school at 167th Street was secured around 1904. A four-storey brick parish school was built by the Rt. Rev. P. J. Hayes, D.D., in 1924 to designs by architect Robert J. Reiley of 50 East 41st Street for $250,000. The same year at 509 West 164th Street, a four-storey brick convent was built to designs by Robert J. Reiley of 50 East 41st Street for $75,000.