Salem is a city in Washington Township, Washington County, Indiana, United States. Salem serves as the county seat, and its downtown area is on the National Register of Historic Places (as are several local buildings). The population was 6,172 at the 2000 census. Salem is primarily an agricultural community, surrounded by typical Indiana forests and farmland and small bodies of water. The primary crop grown in the area is corn and soybeans. Homes in the area are of a variety of styles, with a portion of residential homes having Victorian architectural design.