The James B. Duke House is located at 1 East 78th Street, on the northeast corner at Fifth Avenue, in New York City. The house is one of the great extant mansions from "Millionaire's Row." James Buchanan Duke was one of the founding partners of American Tobacco Company and the owner of Duke Power.
Architect Horace Trumbauer's design of the house drew heavily upon the Hôtel Labottière (1773), Bordeaux, by the Bordeaux architect Etienne Laclotte, architect of numerous hôtels particulières in Bordeaux. The similar treatment of the central bay with its recessed entrance and window on the piano nobile, and the channeled rustication are particularly salient features shared by both urban town houses.
A Landmarks of New York plaque was erected in 1959 by the New York Community Trust. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1977.