Idaho is a state in the Northwestern United States. The state's largest city and capital is Boise. Residents are called "Idahoans". Idaho was admitted to the Union on July 3, 1890, as the 43rd state. Idaho is a mostly mountainous state, and is the 14th largest state by land area, with an area larger than that of all of New England. It is landlocked, surrounded by the states of Washington, Oregon, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, Montana and the Canadian province of British Columbia. However, the network of dams and locks on the Columbia River and Snake River make the city of Lewiston the farthest inland seaport on the Pacific coast of the contiguous United States.
According to the United States Census 2010, Idaho had a population of 1,567,582. The state's postal abbreviation is ID. Idaho's nickname is the Gem State, because nearly every known gemstone has been found there. In addition, Idaho is one of only two places in the World where star garnets can be found (the other is the Himalaya Mountains, in Pakistan and India), and is the only place six-pointed star garnets have been found. Additionally Idaho is sometimes called the Potato State due to its populous crop. The state motto is Esto Perpetua (Latin for "Let it be forever"). The exact origin of the name remains a mystery. In the early 1860s, when the United States Congress was considering organizing a new territory in the Rocky Mountains, eccentric lobbyist George M. Willing suggested the name "Idaho," which he claimed was derived from a Shoshone language term meaning "the sun comes from the mountains" or "gem of the mountains". Willing later claimed that he had made up the name himself. Congress ultimately decided to name the area Colorado Territory when it was created in February 1861. Thinking they would get a jump on the name, locals named a community in Colorado "Idaho Springs".