Hanover Square is a square with a public park in the Financial District, Lower Manhattan, New York City. It is triangular in shape, bordered by Pearl Street, Stone Street (which is now pedestrian-only) and a street named Hanover Square. Most surrounding buildings are primarily commercial, although 3 Hanover Square, a former home to the New York Cotton Exchange, and 10 Hanover Square, a former office building, have been converted to residential use. The square was known by its current name by 1730 during the period of British colonialism. In 1714, it was named for the House of Hanover, when King George I ascended to the throne.
The Queen Elizabeth II Garden (formerly named the British Garden at Hanover Square) was opened in June 2008. A memorial park for those victims of September 11 who were citizens of any Commonwealth realm (i.e., Britain, Canada, Australia, etc.) it was given its broader designation on September 11, 2011. In July 2010, subsequent to her royal tour of Canada, Queen Elizabeth II visited Hanover Square after laying a wreath at the World Trade Center site and meeting with families of the British victims.
According to the New York City Parks Department, the area of the park in the square is 0.056 acres (2440 ft², 227 m²). Some would call this a pocket park. For many years, Hanover Square was the center of New York's commodity market, with the New York Cotton Exchange at 1 Hanover Square, New York Cocoa Exchange (now the New York Board of Trade) and others located nearby. The square was also known as "Printing House Square," and it was here that the Great Fire of New York broke out on December 16, 1835, decimating much of Lower Manhattan.
The IRT Third Avenue Line elevated railway had a station above the square from 1878 until 1950, when it was deactivated and later dismantled. The fourth stage of the Second Avenue Subway will extend subway service as far south as Hanover Square.