Cincinnati /sɪnsɨˈnæti/ is the third largest city in Ohio and the 25th largest city in the United States by metropolitan population and the county seat of Hamilton County, Ohio, United States. Settled in 1788, the city is located on the border between Ohio and Kentucky at the confluence of the Ohio River and the Licking River. According to the 2010 census, the population of the metropolitan area was 2,214,954 - the 25th largest Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) in the United States and the largest in Ohio. Residents of Cincinnati are called Cincinnatians.
In the early 19th century, Cincinnati was an American boomtown in the heart of the country to rival the larger coastal cities in size and wealth. Because it is the first major American city founded after the American Revolution as well as the first major inland city in the country, Cincinnati is sometimes thought of as the first purely American city. It developed initially without as much European immigration or influence that was taking place at the same time in eastern cities. However, by the end of the 19th century, with the shift from steamboats to railroads, Cincinnati's growth had slowed considerably and the city became surpassed in population by other inland cities, Chicago and St. Louis.
Cincinnati is home to two major sports teams, the Cincinnati Reds and the Cincinnati Bengals, an important tennis tournament, the Cincinnati Masters, and home to large events such as the Flying Pig Marathon, the Macy's Music Festival, and the Thanksgiving Day race. The University Of Cincinnati traces its foundation to the Medical College of Ohio, which was founded in 1819.
Cincinnati is known for its large collection of historic architecture. Over-the-Rhine, a neighborhood just to the north of Downtown Cincinnati, boasts among the World's largest collections of Italianate architecture, rivaling similar neighborhoods in New York City, Vienna and Munich in size and scope. In the late 1800s, Cincinnati was commonly referred to as 'Paris of America,' mainly due to significant architectural projects, like the Music Hall, the Cincinnatian Hotel, and the Shillito Department Store. Constructed mainly between 1850 and 1900, Over-the-Rhine was the center of life for German immigrants for many years, and is one of the largest historic districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Cincinnati was founded in late December 1788 when Mathias Denman, Colonel Robert Patterson and Israel Ludlow landed at the spot on the north bank of the Ohio River opposite the mouth of the Licking River. The original surveyor, John Filson (also the author of The Adventures of Colonel Daniel Boon [sic]), named it "Losantiville" from four terms, each of different language, before his death in October 1788 (he was replaced by Israel Ludlow). It means "The town opposite the mouth of the Licking River"; "ville" is French for "city", "anti" is Greek for "opposite", "os" is Latin for "mouth" and "L" was all that was included of "Licking River".
Downtown Cincinnati is focused around Fountain Square, a Public Square and event location. Cincinnati is home to numerous structures that are noteworthy due to their architectural characteristics or historic associations including the Carew Tower, the Scripps Center, the Ingalls Building, Cincinnati Museum Center At Union Terminal, and the Isaac M. Wise Temple.
The city is undergoing significant changes due to new development and private investment, as well as the construction of the long-stalled Banks project, which will include apartments, retail, restaurants, and offices and will stretch from Great American Ball Park to Paul Brown Stadium. Phase 1A is already complete and 100% occupied as of early 2013. Smale Riverfront Park is a development working alongside with The Banks and is Cincinnati's newest park. Nearly $3.5 billion has been invested in the urban core of Cincinnati (including Northern Kentucky). Much has been done by 3CDC. More investment is expected to take place.
Queen City Square opened on January 11, 2011, at 1:11 p.m. EST. The building is the tallest in Cincinnati (surpassing the Carew Tower), and is the third tallest in Ohio, reaching a height of 665 feet. In 2013 the Horseshoe Casino Cincinnati opened, the first casino in the city and fourth in the state of Ohio.
Arts and culture
Cincinnati's culture is influenced by its history of German and Irish immigration and its geographical position on the border of the Southern United States and Midwestern United States. Cincinnati was a major destination for German immigrants. In 1830, residents of German roots made up 5 percent of the population, ten years later the number rose to 30 percent. By 1900, over 60 percent of its population was of German background. Cincinnati's Jewish community was developed by immigrants from England and Germany who made the city a center of Reform Judaism.
Cincinnati is identified with several unique foods. "Cincinnati chili" is commonly served by several independent chains, including Skyline Chili, Gold Star Chili, Price Hill Chili, Empress Chili, Camp Washington Chili, and Dixie Chili and Deli. Cincinnati has been called the "Chili Capital of America" and "the World" because it has more chili restaurants per capita than any other city in the nation or world. Goetta is a meat product popular in Cincinnati consisting of sausage and pinhead oatmeal, usually fried and eaten as a breakfast food. Cincinnati also has many gourmet restaurants.
Until 2005, when the restaurant closed, The Maisonette carried the distinction of being Mobil Travel Guide's longest running five-star restaurant in the country for 41 consecutive years. Jean-Robert de Cavel has opened four new restaurants in the area since 2001, including Jean-Robert's at Pigall's which closed in March 2009. Cincinnati's German heritage is evidenced by the many restaurants that specialize in schnitzels and Bavarian cooking. Another element of German culture remains audible in the local vernacular; some residents use the word please when asking a speaker to repeat a statement. This usage is taken from the German word for please, bitte (a shortening of the formal, "Wie bitte?" or "How please?" rendered word for word from German into English), which is used in this sense.
Findlay Market is Ohio's oldest continuously operated public market and one of Cincinnati's most famous institutions. The market is the last remaining market among the many that once served Cincinnati. In August 2008, Forbes magazine ranked Cincinnati as tenth in a list of "America's Hard-Drinking Cities".