Canadian is the county seat of Hemphill County, Texas, United States. The population was 2,233 at the 2000 census. It is named for the Canadian River, a tributary of the nearby Arkansas River. Canadian is sometimes called "the oasis of the Texas Panhandle." The trails along the river are older than recorded history. Francisco Coronado came through the area in 1541 in a vain search for the Seven Cities of Cibola. In 1840, Josiah Gregg and thirty-four men from Missouri passed through Canadian with trading goods worth $25,000 en route to Santa Fe, New Mexico.