Arcola is a city in Douglas County, Illinois, United States. The population was 2,916 at the 2010 census. The city was founded in 1855, when the Illinois Central Railroad was built through the county. The railroad itself was responsible for surveying, platting and founding the town. A nationally known tourist attraction, Rockome Gardens, which features large formal gardens, concrete fencing and architecture, buggy rides, and many special events from May through October is conveniently located just outside of the town of Arcola.