Aeolian Hall was a concert hall in midtown Manhattan in New York City, located on the third floor of 29-33 West 42nd Street (also 34 West 43rd Street, from the other side) across the street from Bryant Park. The Aeolian Building was built in 1912 for the Aeolian Company, which manufactured pianos. Located on the site of the former Latting Tower, which during the 19th century was a popular observatory, the 18-story building contained the 1,100-seat Aeolian Hall. The New York Symphony Society performed concerts in both Aeolian Hall and Carnegie Hall, but moved in 1924 to the new Mecca Auditorium on 55th Street. Aeolian Hall was designed by the New York architectural firm of Warren and Wetmore.
Aeolian Hall also featured concerts by leading musical figures such as Sergei Rachmaninoff, Sergei Prokofiev, Ferruccio Busoni, Guiomar Novaes, and Ignacy Jan Paderewski, as well as Paul Whiteman and his Orchestra; upon its return to the United States after several years in Europe, the Zoellner Quartet gave its first New York performance there on January 7, 1914. The hall is most famous for a concert given by Whiteman's orchestra on February 12, 1924, titled "An Experiment in Modern Music".
Intended to be an educational demonstration on how far American music had progressed in recent decades and how jazz could be performed in the concert hall, the concert included a suite by Victor Herbert and closed with the Pomp and Circumstance marches by Edward Elgar. The concert is remembered, however, for the penultimate piece, the World premiere of George Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue with the composer at the piano, orchestrated by Whiteman's arranger Ferde Grofe. This concert is today considered a defining event of the Jazz Age and the cultural history of New York City.