Mykolaiv also known as Nikolayev is a city in southern Ukraine, administrative center of the Mykolaiv Oblast. Mykolaiv is the main ship building center of the Black Sea, and, arguably, the whole Eastern Europe. There are several variations of the city's name. In Ukrainian, the city is named Микола́їв, for which the transliteration is Mykolaiv, or, more rarely, Mykolayiv. The Russian name is Никола́ев, which transliterates as Nikolaev or Nikolayev. In 1920 the Nikolaev government decided to rename the city Vernoleninsk, but the new name was not approved by the Government of the Soviet Union. Nevertheless, in German encyclopedic dictionaries in 1927 and 1932 on the map of European USSR, the city was named Vernoleninsk.
The city is located 65 kilometers (40 mi) from the Black Sea along the estuary of the Southern Buh river (where it meets the Inhul River)..