Chyhyryn is a city located in Cherkasy Oblast of central Ukraine. In 1648 to 1669 the city was the capital of Ukraine (Cossack Hetmanate). Today the city resting on the banks of Tiasmyn River is the administrative center of the Chyhyryn Raion with its current population is estimated just over 10,000. The city lies at the altitude of 124 metres above mean sea level. Minor industry, such as food and furniture factories, exist in the town today.
Chyhyryn is first mentioned as a fortified Cossack winter station. In 1638, Bohdan Khmelnytsky became its starosta (regional leader), and in 1648 became the newly elected hetman's residence and the capital of the Cossack state, the Zaporozhian Host. In 1669 upon the election of Demian Mnohohrishny as the hetman of Ukraine, the capital was moved to Baturyn.
During the Russo-Turkish War (1676–1681) it was the center of two bloody campaigns (1675–76 and 1677–78). In 1678 the castle of Chyhyryn was blown by the retreating Russian garrison that was stationed there, while the Turkish forces sacked the rest of the city. After this, it gradually lost its significance. It remained the center of the Chyhyryn regiment until 1712 and upon the final incorporation into the Russian Empire (1793) it became part of the Kiev region.