Buchach is a city located on the Strypa River (a tributary of the Dniester) in Ternopil Oblast (province) of western Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Buchach Raion (district), and rests 135 km south east of Lviv, in the historic region of Galicia. The current estimated population is around 12,500 (as of the 2001 Ukrainian census). The earliest recorded mention of Buchach is in 1397, almost fifty years after Galicia was conquered by Poland. It was during this time that the area experienced a large influx of Polish, Jewish and Armenian settlers. Buchach in particular became home to a large Jewish community, and is thus considered to be a shtetl.
Its founders were leading Polish aristocrats, and among its early settlers were Jews, coming to inhabit a predominantly Ukrainian rural milieu. By way of contrast with the mainly Slavic peasant populations, the Jewish settlers in the lands of the eastern Galicia were townspeople and skilled craftsmen.