Rumbek is a town and the Former capital in South Sudan. The town of Rumbek is located in Rumbek Central County, Lakes State in central South Sudan. This location lies approximately 377 kilometres (234 mi), by road, northwest of Juba, the capital and largest city in that country. Rumbek sits at an elevation of 420 metres (1,380 ft) above sea level.
Rumbek is the headquarters of Rumbek Central County and is the capital of Lakes State, one of the ten (10) states in South Sudan. Following the peace agreement ending the Second Sudanese Civil War, the Sudanese People's Liberation Movement chose Rumbek to serve as the temporary administrative center of the Government of Southern Sudan. Later, Juba was selected to become the permanent capital. Like most South Sudanese towns, Rumbek suffered significant infrastructural damage during the civil war, in which an estimated 2 million people perished.
In 2004, the United Nations (OCHA) estimated the population of "Rumbek County" at about 82,500. At that time, the Dinka Agar constituted about 60% of the population, 30% were Dinka Gok, 6% were Bongo and 4% were Jur-Bel. In 2011, the population of the town of Rumbek is estimated at about 32,100.