The Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, formerly Transvaal Museum, is a natural history museum situated in Pretoria, South Africa.
It was founded as the Staatsmuseum (Afrikaans for "State Museum") of the ZAR on the 1 December 1892, and J. W. B. Gunning was appointed as first director. The museum was located for the first two years in the Ou Raadsaal parliament building.
The Transvaal Museum curates large collections of Plio-Pleistocene fossils, (including hominids from Sterkfontein, Swartkrans and Kromdraai in the Cradle of Humankind), as well as late Permian therapsids (mammal-like reptiles from the Karoo). In addition the museum holds very large collections of mammals, birds, reptiles, and invertebrates (especially lepidoptera and coleoptera).