Aliwal North is a town in central South Africa on the Orange River, Eastern Cape Province. Aliwal North is the seat of the Maletswai Local Municipality within the Joe Gqabi District Municipality.
Aliwal North is named in tribute to Sir Harry Smith. Sir Harry Smith, then Governor of the Cape Colony, formally founded the small town of Aliwal North in the Cape Province of South Africa in 1850. He named the town "Aliwal" in memory of his victory over the Sikhs at the Battle of Aliwal during the First Sikh War in India in 1846, and "North" in opposition to Aliwal South (now Mossel Bay). The town was laid out in 1849 on ground acquired by the government. This was auctioned and 38 lots were sold for £972.