Loures is a civil parish in the central Portuguese Greater Lisbon municipality of Loures; it is an urban agglomeration comprising the city of Loures with a resident population of 66,231. Loures was a Roman settlement back at the beginning of the 1st millennium, based in a cemetery that eventually became the site of the first church. It was also a region notable for the presence of many castros, before the Roman occupation; the Romans influenced many of these settlers to abandon the foothills and begin occupying the fertile lowlands for economic reasons. After the Romans, the Visigoths began occupying the territory, followed by the Moors (after the 8th century).
The Chapel of Nossa Senhora da Saúde was built during this era: in 1598, the Plague devastated the capital, and for five years on it spread across the country (resulting in the death of approximately 80,000 victims). Fleeing the contagion, many of urban residents escaped into the country to the elevated villages, which they assumed protected them from the disease. Some families brought with them the image of Our Lady of Health, and raised a church, in order to defend themselves of the Plague: by 1604 the threat had passed, and no cases of the disease were discovered within the territory.