Huaynaputina is a stratovolcano located in a volcanic upland in southern Peru
. The volcano does not have an identifiable mountain profile, but instead has the form of a large volcanic crater. It has produced high-potassium andesite and dacite. On 19 February 1600, it exploded catastrophically (Volcanic Explosivity Index—or VEI—6), in the largest volcanic explosion in South America
in historic times.
The eruption continued with a series of events into March. An account of the event was included in Fray Antonio Vazquez de Espinosa's, Compendio y Descripción de las Indias, which was translated into English as Compendium and description of the West Indies in 1942.Huaynaputina lies in Southern Peru's Moquegua
Region, 80 kilometres (50 mi) of Arequipa
. The volcano is part of the Central Volcanic Zone, the segment of the Andes running through Peru and Chile
. It is north of at least one another caldera complex with a resurgent dome.