American Cemetery and Memorial is a cemetery for American military personnel who were killed in World
War II. Established as a temporary wartime cemetery on 24 January 1944, in Nettuno
, two days after the landing at Anzio
and Nettuno, codenamed Operation Shingle, the site in Italy
covers 77 acres (31 ha), rising in a gentle slope from a broad pool with an island and cenotaph flanked by groups of Italian cypress trees. Beyond the pool is the immense field of headstones of 7,861 of American military war dead, arranged in gentle arcs on broad green lawns beneath rows of Roman pines.
The majority of these men died in the liberation of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, (July 10 to August 17, 1943); in the landings in the Salerno
Area, codenamed Operation Avalanche, (September 9, 1943) and the heavy fighting northward; in the landings, codenamed Operation Shingle, at Anzio and Nettuno and expansion of the beachhead (January 22, 1944 to May 1944); and in air and naval support in the regions.
A wide central mall leads to the memorial, rich in works of art and architecture, expressing America's remembrance of the dead. It consists of a chapel to the south, a peristyle, and a map room to the north. On the white marble walls of the chapel are engraved the names of 3,095 of the missing. Rosettes mark the names of those since recovered and identified. The map room contains a bronze relief map and four fresco maps depicting the military operations in Sicily and Italy. At each end of the memorial are ornamental Italian gardens.
The cemetery is open daily to the public from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. except December 25 and January 1. It is open on host country holidays. When the cemetery is open to the public, a staff member is on duty in the Visitor Building to answer questions and escort relatives to grave and memorial sites.