Surabaya (Indonesian pronunciation: [surəˈbaja]) (formerly Soerabaja, Soerabaia or Surabaja) is Indonesia's second-largest city with a population of over 3.1 million (5.6 million in the metropolitan area), and the capital of the province of East Java. It is located on the northern shore of eastern Java at the mouth of the Mas River and along the edge of the Madura Strait.
To some Indonesians, it is known as "the city of heroes" due to the importance of the Battle of Surabaya in galvanizing Indonesian and international support for Indonesian independence during the Indonesian National Revolution. Surabaya is also known as the birthplace of Indonesia first president, Sukarno.
The earliest record of Surabaya was in a 1225 book written by Chau Ju-Kua, in which it was called Jung-ya-lu, the ancient name of Surabaya. Ma Huan documented the early fifteenth-century visit of Zheng He's treasure ships in his 1433 book Yingyai Shenglan: "after traveling south for more than twenty li, the ship reached Sulumayi, whose foreign name is Surabaya. At the estuary, the outflowing water is fresh".
In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, Surabaya was a sultanate and a major political and military power in eastern Java. It entered a conflict with, and was later captured by, the more powerful Sultanate of Mataram in 1625 under Sultan Agung. It was one of Mataram's fiercest campaigns, in which they had to conquer Surabaya's allies, Sukadana and Madura, and to lay siege to the city before capturing it. With this conquest, Mataram then controlled almost the whole of Java, with the exception of the Sultanate of Banten and the Dutch settlement of Batavia.
The regencies surrounding Surabaya include: Lamongan Regency to the northwest, Gresik Regency to the west, Bangkalan Regency to the northeast (on Madura Island), Sidoarjo Regency to the south, and Mojokerto Regency and Jombang Regency to the southwest. Gresik, Bangkalan, Mojokerto, Surabaya, Sidoarjo and Lamongan comprise an extended metropolitan area which is called Gerbangkertosusila.The Adhiwangsa, The Via & Vue, Taman Beverly, Trillium and Water Place Residences are five of the tallest skyscrapers in Surabaya, along with the BRI Tower, BII Tower and Graha Pena.
Surabaya's zoo, opened in 1916, was the first in the World to have successfully bred orangutans in captivity. Other points of interest include:
- Grand Mosque of Surabaya or Al-Akbar Mosque, the largest mosque in East Java.
- Cheng Ho Mosque, a recently built mosque, the first in Indonesia with Chinese-style architecture.
- Jales Veva Jaya Mahe Monument, a large, admiral-like statue which commemorates the Indonesian Navy.