Rani ki vav is a famous stepwell situated in Patan
town in Gujarat
.Patan was called as Anhilpur Patan when King Siddharja Jaysingh was ruling & it was the capital of Gujarat. Mr. Vanraja Chavda has founded Patan. During the period of the Solanki or Chalukya, the stepwell called the Rani ki vav, or Ran-ki vav (Queen’s step well) was constructed. It is a richly sculptured monument.
It is generally assumed that it was built in the memory of Bhimdev I (AD 1022 to 1063) son of Mularaja, the founder of the Solanki dynasty of Anahilwada Pattan in about 1050 AD by his widowed queen Udayamati.It was probably completed by Udayamati and Karandev I after his death. A reference to Udayamati building the monument is in the 'Prabandha Chintamani' composed by Merunga Suri in 1304 AD.
This magnificent east facing step well measures approximately 64m long, 20 m wide & 27m deep. A stepped corridor compartmented at regular intervals with pillared multi-storeyed pavilions is a unique feature. It was one of the largest and the most sumptuous structures of its type. It became silted up and much of it is not visible now, except for some rows of sculptured panels in the circular part of the well. Among its ruins one pillar still stands which is the proof not only of the elegance of its design, but also excellent example of this period.
A part only of the west well is extant from which it appears that the wall had been built of brick and faced with stone. From this wall project vertical bracket in pairs, this supported the different galleries of the well shaft proper. This bracketing is arranged in tires and is richly carved. The minute and exquisite carving of this vav is one of the finest specimens of its kind. Befitting its name, the Rani-Ki-Vav is now considered to be the queen among step wells of India.
There is also a small Gate below the last step of the step well which has a 30 kilometre tunnel built (Now it has been blocked by stones and mud) which leads to the town of Sidhpur
near Patan. It was used as an escape gateway for king who built the step well in the times of defeat.Rani-ki-Vav (The Queen's Stepwell) at Patan, Gujarat is part of the UNESCO World
Heritage Tentative List (since 1998).