The Kollur Mine in the Guntur District in Andhra Pradesh, India was one of the most productive diamond mines in the World and the first major diamond center. It is situated on the right bank of the River Krishna. It operated between the sixteenth and mid-nineteenth centuries. In addition to the Kollur, the Paritala, Gollapally, Mallavally, Ramallakota, and Banganapally were extremely prolific mines in India during this period. At the height of production, it was recorded that around 60,000 people mined the region, including men, women, and children of all ages. The most celebrated Kohinoor diamond was mined in the " Kollur mine (or Coulour Gani)" Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India.
The famous diamond known as the "Tavernier Diamond" was purchased by Jean-Baptiste Tavernier from the Kollur mine in the mid-17th century. The diamond was purchased from Tavernier by King Louis XIV of France but was stolen during the French Revolution; it is believed to have reappeared as the recut Hope Diamond. The Indian mines were eventually depleted and the diamond center shifted to Brazil, where a good amount of diamonds were discovered. Many of the most famous and notable diamonds were mined from these early Indian mines, including the Koh-i-noor, the Regent Diamond, the Great Mogul (all from the Kollur); the Daria-i-Noor, the Orloff, the Dresden Green, and the Nassak Diamond.
Some of the most famous diamonds mined in Kollur mines are:
- Kohinoor (186ct) - British Crown Jewels, London
- The Great Mogul Diamond(787ct) - Lost after Nader Shah sacked Delhi
- The Pitt or Regent Diamond (410ct) - Apollo Gallery, Louvre Museum, Paris
- The Orloff Diamond (300 ct) - Diamond Treasury, Kremlin, Moscow
- Nizam Diamond (340ct) - Nizam's Treasury, Hyderabad
- Darya-ye Noor (182 ct) - Iranian Crown Jewels, on display:Central Bank of Iran, Tehran
- The Hope Diamond (67ct) - Smithsonian Institution, Washington
- The Golconda (135ct) - Dunklings Jewellers, Melbourne, Australia.
- Kolluru (63ct) - Purchased by Tavernier and unknown location
- Dresden Green Diamond (41 ct) - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden "The New Green Vault"