Jharkhand is a state in eastern India. It was carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000. Jharkhand shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Orissa to the south, and West Bengal to the east. It has an area of 79,714 km2 Or 30,778 sq mi (79,710 km2). The industrial city of Ranchi is its capital and Dumka is sub capital while Jamshedpur is the largest and the biggest industrial city of the state. Some of the other major cities and industrial centres are Dhanbad, Bokaro and Hazaribagh. The name "Jharkhand" means "The Land of Forests".
The Jharkhandi Culture has passed the test of time. Being a tribe dominated state, nature has been given utmost importance in every sphere of life & culture. Branches of sacred trees are brought and ceremonially planted in the courtyards. Devotees then worship these tree parts associated with gods/goddesses. Karma puja, Jitia Puja, Sarhul are a few examples.
Poush Mela or Tusu Fair is a significant occasion celebrated during the Makar Sankranti wherein brightly coloured excellently decorated symbolic artefacts of folk deity are carried by the People. This is a folk harvesting festival. Tusu is a folk belief, not about any God or Goddess, but about a sweet little girl of the tribal folk. The festival takes place as new crops are harvested. The entire festival is a very colourful one. It takes the shape of the all-around festive mood of the tribal people, where everyone takes part.
The medium of instruction in schools is Hindi/ English with English/ Hindi/ Sanskrit/ Urdu/ Bengali/ Oriya as second language. After 10 years of schooling, students can join 2 years of Intermediate course (or +2 courses) in Arts, Science and Commerce. This is followed by 3 years of degree courses (graduation)or 4 years of Engineering/Agriculture/Medicine degree. On May 2008, Jharkhand became the first in India to introduce free haircuts for poor students. 40,000 barbers will be employed with a monthly salary of 1000 rupees (25 US dollars) which will cost the state government 40 million rupees (1 million US dollars).
Universities and colleges:
Jharkhand has a number of engineering and management colleges: Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur, Birla Institute of Technology, Ranchi, Jamshedpur Institute of Management Science, Jamshedpur, Netaji Subhas Institute of Business Management, Jamshedpur, R.v.s College of Engineering and Technology, Jamshedpur, Birsa Institute of Technology Sindri, Dhanbad, and the National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology (NIFFT). Among which BIT Mesra, NIT Jamshedpur and ISM Dhanbad are among top 15 technical colleges in the country.
Flora and fauna:
Jharkhand has a rich variety of flora and fauna. The National Parks and the Zoological Gardens located in the state of Jharkhand present a panorama of this variety. Betla National Park in the Latehar district, located 8 km away from Barwadih, covers an area of about 250 square kilometres (97 sq mi).
The national park has a large variety of wildlife, including tigers, elephants, bisons (which are locally known as gaurs), sambhars, wild boar, and pythons (up to 20 feet (6.1 m) long), spotted deer(chitals), rabbits and foxes. The mammalian fauna to be seen at Betla National Park also include langurs, rhesus monkeys, blue bulls and wild boars. The lesser mammals are the porcupines, hares, wild cats, honey badgers, Malabar giant squirrels, mongooses, wolves, antelopes etc. In 1974, the park was declared a Project Tiger Reserve.