Molkenmarkt (simply: whey market) is the oldest square in Berlin. It is approximately 9,200 square metres (11,000 sq yd) in size. It is located in the old centre of the city and was the city marketplace until the development of a new market at St. Mary's Church in the late 13th century, after which it was known as the Olde Markt or Alter Markt (Old Market) until 1685, when it was renamed to Mulkenmarkt, later to change to Molkenmarkt.
The area around the square was originally densely populated. However, much of the centre of Berlin was destroyed in World War II bombing. In addition, the Nazis cleared many buildings with the intention of creating an administrative forum around it, with as its centrepiece the administration building Altes Stadthaus, Berlin, which was originally separated from the square by buildings along Jüdenstraße. Then in 1959, under the German Democratic Republic, Grunerstraße was extended through the square.