St Matthew’s Church is a Church of England church in the London Borough of Lambeth. It is a Grade II* listed building. which occupies a prominent position at the junction of Brixton Road, Brixton Hill and Effra Road.
Until the early 19th century, Brixton was part of the parish of St Mary-at-Lambeth, whose ancient parish church stood about 3 miles (4.8 km) away, next to Lambeth Palace. These arrangements were inconvenient for those living in the new housing that was already starting to appear along the main roads passing through Brixton, a situation that was addressed by the construction of St Matthew's.
In 1886 the population of the parish amounted to 13,924 and was served by three clergy. The total proportion attending (morning and evening services) was 12.4%. In 1901 the population of the parish was 12,029. In the following year, there were two clergymen and the total proportion attending was 11.2%.