The I Tarapaca Region is one of Chile's 15 first order administrative divisions. It borders the Chilean Arica and Parinacota Region to the north, Bolivia's Oruro Department on the east, the Antofagasta Region on the south and the Pacific Ocean on the west. The port city of Iquique (2002 pop. 216,419) is the region's capital.
Much of the region was once a Peruvian province, which was annexed by Chile under the 1883 Treaty of Ancon at the close of the War of the Pacific. The region was important economically as a site of intense saltpeter mining, before synthetic nitrate manufacturing became possible. A number of abandoned mining towns can still be found in the region.
The present day Tarapaca Region was created in 2007 by subdividing the former Tarapaca Region under Law 20.175, which was signed by President Michelle Bachelet in Arica. The government of the region resides in the intendant, who is assigned by the president. Each of the region's two provinces are further subdivided into communes.