Bonne-Espérance is a municipality in the Côte-Nord region of the province of Quebec in Canada. The municipality is made up of the three fishing villages of Rivière-Saint-Paul (St. Paul's River), Middle Bay, and Vieux-Fort (Old Fort Bay), and was incorporated as a municipality on January 1, 1990. All three communities are accessible via Quebec Route 138 from Blanc-Sablon to the east only; this road currently ends at Vieux-Fort before commencing again at Natashquan some 300 kilometres (190 mi) west-south-west.
Bonne Esperance was first known to be inhibited by the Maritime Archaic people. The Maritime Archaic people are probably the ancestors of today’s Innu people. The Maritime Archaic people were on the coast for about 9000 years ago, when the French people saw these people they called them Montagnais, because of the hilly land they lived on. In 1534 Jacques Cartier claimed this new found land for the King of France. They believed that Old Fort Bay as the first capital of North America. They called this new found land “New France”. It is rumoured that Cartier erected the first cross claiming the land in Baie des Rochers, about 15 km away from what is now known as Old Fort Bay, researchers still do not know the exact placement of the cross.