Oberdrauburg is a market town in the district of Spittal an der Drau at the western rim of the Austrian state of Carinthia. It is situated near the Kärntner Tor (Carinthian Gate), where the Drava river crosses the border from East Tyrol to Carinthia. In the west it shares border with the Tyrolian municipality of Nikolsdorf. The name of the town corresponds with the municipality of Dravograd in Slovenia, former Unterdrauburg, where the Drava crosses the border from Carinthia to Lower Styria. The market town of Oberdrauburg also includes the Katastralgemeinden of Flaschberg and Zwickenberg.
Oberdrauburg is situated on the Drautal-Straße highway (Bundesstraße B 100) running from Spittal an der Drau to Lienz. Here the Plöckenpass-Straße B 110 highway branches off, leading to the Gailbergsattel mountain pass and Kötschach-Mauthen. Rail transport is available at the Oberdrauburg Station of the Drautalbahn (Drava Valley Railway) line.