Wilson Island is one of eight vegetated coral cays in the Capricornia Cays National Park. It is located north of the Tropic of Capricorn, approximately 72 kilometres north east off the coast of Gladstone, Queensland and 15 kilometres from nearby Heron Island. It is part of the Capricornia Cays Important Bird Area. It is also part of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area.
Wilson Island is an important turtle and bird rookery fringed by a white coral beach and covered with pisonia forest. The Capricorn Silvereye, a small bird endemic to the southern Great Barrier Reef, is present. From November to March, the island is home to wedge-tailed shearwaters and green turtles laying their eggs. The island is closed during the month of February for the bird nesting season. From January to April, baby green turtles hatch and make their way into the sea, while from June to September, humpback whales can be seen going to and from their winter feeding grounds.