Roebourne is an former gold rush town in Western Australia's Pilbara region. It is 202 km from Port Hedland and 1,563 km from Perth, the state's capital. It prospered during its gold boom of the late 19th century and was once the largest settlement between Darwin and Perth. At the 2006 census, Roebourne had a population of 857. On 21 December 2011, Roebourne set a new record for the highest maximum temperature recorded in the state during December.