Maryborough ( /ˈmɛəriːbərə/) is a city in Victoria, Australia, located on the Pyrenees Highway, 80 kilometres (50 mi) north of Ballarat, 168 kilometres (104 mi) north-west of Melbourne, in the Shire of Central Goldfields. At the 2006 census, Maryborough had a population of 7,692.
The area was originally inhabited by the Dja Dja Wurrung people. The first Europeans to settle were the Simson brothers, who established a sheep station, known as Charlotte Plains, in 1840. Gold was discovered at White Hill, 4 kilometres north of Maryborough, in 1854, leading to prospectors rushing to the area. At its peak, Maryborough had a population of up to 50,000.