Boulia is a town in Central West Queensland, Australia. It is located approximately 296 kilometres (184 mi) by road south of Mount Isa, and lies on the Burke River, which was named after the explorer Robert O'Hara Burke who passed through the area with the Burke and Wills expedition in 1860. The township was gazetted in 1879. Boulia is the administrative centre of the Boulia Shire, population approximately 600, which covers an area of 61,176 square kilometres (23,620 sq mi). At the 2006 census, Boulia had a population of 205. The town hosts the Boulia Desert Sands Camel Races, one of the more important events on the Australian camel racing circuit. Extensive grazing of beef cattle is the predominant industry.