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Maracaibo, Zulia, Venezuela
The General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge is located at the outlet of Lake Maracaibo, in western Venezuela. The bridge connects Maracaibo with much of the rest of the country. It is named after General Rafael Urdaneta, a Venezuelan hero in the War of Independence.
Made of reinforced and prestressed concrete, the cable-stayed bridge spans 8,678 metres (5.392 mi) from shore to shore. The five main spans are each 235 metres (771 ft) long. They are supported from 92-metre (302 ft) tall towers, and provide 46 metres (151 ft) of clearance to the water below. The bridge carries only vehicles.
The competition to design the bridge started in 1957 and was won by Riccardo Morandi, an Italian civil engineer. Morandi's was the only concrete design out of twelve entries, and was expected to be less expensive to maintain, as well as providing valuable experience of prestressed concrete technology for Venezuela. Construction was carried out by several companies, including Grün & Bilfinger, Julius Berger, Bauboag AG, Philipp Holzmann AG, Precomprimido C.A., Wayss & Freytag and K Ingeniería.