Bounded by Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya, Somalia is the easternmost part of Africa along the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, commonly referred as the Horn of Africa. A country with a troubled past that includes military coups, border disputes and civil war, Somalia is currently ruled by a coalition government. Featuring a year-round hot climate, Somalia terrain consists of plateaus, semi-desert plains and highlands. Displaying the longest coastline of the continent stretching to 3,025 kilometers, Somalia has just two permanent rivers called the Jubba and Shabele.
Despite civil unrest, Somalia has maintained a healthy informal economy based on livestock, money transfer companies and telecommunications. This semi-arid country is home to around 10 million inhabitants, of which almost 85 percent are ethnic Somalis. With Somali and Arabic recognized as official languages, English and Italian are designated as ‘second languages’ of the Somali Republic.