The temple was built in the years 1843-1846 in the classical style on the scheme of the Greek cross. The inside has a Byzantine character; the walls are covered with the polychromy from 1910. This style was taken from Orthodox Church in Kijów.
The iconostasis of 1844 contains many icons, including the "tondas" or round icons. As in many Orthodox churches, here also is the socalled lower church. From 1959 the Church of Saint Nicholas has fulfilled the function of a cathedral, and from 1994 it is the Orthodox "field cathedral" of the Polish Armed Forces. By the church the administration of the Orthodox dioceses of Białystok - Gdańsk has its offices, so do the Orthodox Cultural Centre and the Department of Orthodox Theology of the Univerity of Białystok.