The church was first in Poland built by the Jesuits. It housed an astronomical observatory, where Karol Malapert, Belgian, for first time in Poland used a telescope for regular star and planet observations. Its construction lasted from 1587 to 1595 with a participation of builder Albin Fontana, in accordance with a design of Jan M. Bernardoni. It is one of the earliest baroque churches in Poland. The three-aisled chapel has a basilica-like arrangement with galleries. An innovative urban solution, used for the first time in the Republic of Poland, was closing the street axis with the church façade. King Sigismund III Vasa visited the church just before its consecration, which took place on September 8, 1596. The most precious historical things of the chapel are a baroque altar as well as a picture “Ascension” , painted by A. Bertelmann in 1887. The epitaph of primate S. Karnkowski – the church founder, placed in the presbytery in approx. 1611 is priceless. According to tradition, there was allegedly an astronomical observatory in the church tower.