Aderbissinat is a town and commune in central Niger. It lies in the Sahel, the semi-arid, sparsely populated zone between the Sahara Desert to the north and the millet-growing savannah to the south. Raising goats, camels, and cattle is the traditional livelihood for people in this region, which gets only a few weeks of rain per year. However, recurrent drought since the 1970s has caused the starvation of many animals. This has forced many previously nomadic and semi-nomadic people to settle in and around Aderbissinat and other Sahelian towns.
Aderbissinat is ethnically and linguistically mixed, with residents of Hausa, Tuareg, and Arab origin. Nomadic Fula cattle-herders also come into town regularly to sell their wares. Although isolated, the town lies on a major trans-Saharan route linking Algeria to Nigeria. The nearest cities are Agadez to the north and Zinder to the south.