Bombay Stock Exchange, commonly referred to as the BSE, (Bombay Śhare Bāzaār) is a stock exchange located on Dalal Street, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. It is the 10th largest stock exchanges in the World by market capitalization. Established in 1875, BSE Ltd. (formerly known as Bombay Stock Exchange Ltd.) is Asia’s first Stock Exchange and one of India’s leading exchange groups. Over the past 137 years, BSE has facilitated the growth of the Indian corporate sector by providing it an efficient capital-raising platform. Popularly known as BSE, the bourse was established as "The Native Share & Stock Brokers' Association" in 1875.
BSE is a corporatized and demutualised entity, with a broad shareholder-base which includes two leading global exchanges, Deutsche Bourse and Singapore Exchange as strategic partners. BSE provides an efficient and transparent market for trading in equity, debt instruments, derivatives, mutual funds. It also has a platform for trading in equities of small-and-medium enterprises (SME). Around 5000 companies are listed on BSE making it world's No. 1 exchange in terms of listed members. The companies listed on BSE Ltd command a total market capitalization of USD Trillion 1.2 as of October 31, 2012. BSE Ltd is world's fifth most active exchange in terms of number of transactions handled through its electronic trading system. It is also one of the world’s leading exchanges (3rd largest in July 2012) for Index options trading.
BSE also provides a host of other services to capital market participants including risk management, clearing, settlement, market data services and education. It has a global reach with customers around the world and a nation-wide presence. BSE systems and processes are designed to safeguard market integrity, drive the growth of the Indian capital market and stimulate innovation and competition across all market segments. BSE is the first exchange in India and second in the world to obtain an ISO 9001:2000 certification. It operates one of the most respected capital market educational institutes in the country (the BSE Institute Ltd.). BSE also provides depository services through its Central Depository Services Ltd. (CDSL) arm. BSE’s popular equity index - the SENSEX - is India's most widely tracked stock market benchmark index. It is traded internationally on the EUREX as well as leading exchanges of the BRCS nations (Brazil, Russia, China and South Africa).
The Bombay Stock Exchange is the oldest exchange in Asia. It traces its history to the 1850s, when four Gujarati and one Parsi stockbroker would gather under banyan trees in front of Mumbai's Town Hall. The location of these meetings changed many times, as the number of brokers constantly increased. The group eventually moved to Dalal Street in 1874 and in 1875 became an official organization known as 'The Native Share & Stock Brokers Association'. In 1956, the BSE became the first stock exchange to be recognized by the Indian Government under the Securities Contracts Regulation Act. The Bombay Stock Exchange developed the BSE SENSEX in 1986, giving the BSE a means to measure overall performance of the exchange.
In 2000 the BSE used this index to open its derivatives market, trading SENSEX futures contracts. The development of SENSEX options along with equity derivatives followed in 2001 and 2002, expanding the BSE's trading platform. Historically an open outcry floor trading exchange, the Bombay Stock Exchange switched to an electronic trading system in 1995. It took the exchange only fifty days to make this transition. This automated, screen-based trading platform called BSE On-line trading (BOLT) currently has a capacity of 8 million orders per day. The BSE has also introduced the world's first centralized exchange-based internet trading system, BSEWEBx.co.in to enable investors anywhere in the world to trade on the BSE platform. The BSE is currently housed in Phiroze Jeejeebhoy Towers at Dalal Street, Fort area.
The launch of SENSEX in 1986 was later followed up in January 1989 by introduction of BSE National Index (Base: 1983-84 = 100). It comprised 100 stocks listed at five major stock exchanges in India - Mumbai, Calcutta, Delhi, Ahmedabad and Madras. The BSE National Index was renamed BSE-100 Index from October 14, 1996 and since then, it is being calculated taking into consideration only the prices of stocks listed at BSE. BSE launched the dollar-linked version of BSE-100 index on May 22, 2006. BSE launched two new index series on 27 May 1994: The 'BSE-200' and the 'DOLLEX-200'. BSE-500 Index and 5 sectoral indices were launched in 1999. In 2001, BSE launched BSE-PSU Index, DOLLEX-30 and the country's first free-float based index - the BSE TECk Index. Over the years, BSE shifted all its indices to the free-float methodology (except BSE-PSU index).
BSE disseminates information on the Price-Earnings Ratio, the Price to Book Value Ratio and the Dividend Yield Percentage on day-to-day basis of all its major indices. The values of all BSE indices are updated on real time basis during market hours and displayed through the BOLT system, BSE website and news wire agencies. All BSE Indices are reviewed periodically by the BSE Index Committee. This Committee which comprises eminent independent finance professionals frames the broad policy guidelines for the development and maintenance of all BSE indices. The BSE Index Cell carries out the day-to-day maintenance of all indices and conducts research on development of new indices.SENSEX is significantly correlated with the stock indices of other emerging markets.
- The World Council of Corporate Governance has awarded the Golden Peacock Global CSR Award for BSE's initiatives in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).
- The Annual Reports and Accounts of BSE for the year ended March 31, 2006 and March 31, 2007 have been awarded the ICAI awards for excellence in financial reporting.
- It has been cited as one of the world's best performing stock market by Reuters.
- The Human Resource Management at BSE has won the Asia - Pacific HRM awards for its efforts in employer branding through talent management at work, health management at work and excellence in HR through technology.