The city of Aligarh is the district headquarters for Aligarh district, in the Northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is among the metropolitan cities in India that are known worldwide. It is notable for being the seat of Aligarh Muslim University and for a lock factory. Aligarh is located approximately 90 miles (140 km) south-east of the capital city of New Delhi. The city also houses as the administrative headquarters of Aligarh District and Aligarh Division.
Before the 18th century, Aligarh was known as Kol or Koil. The name Kol referred to the entire district. The origin of the name is obscure. In some ancient texts, Kol has been referred to in the sense of a tribe or caste, the name of a place or mountain and the name of a sage or demon. Study of the place-name indicates that the district was once fairly well covered by forests and groves. The history of the district through the 12th century AD is obscure.
The city is an agricultural trade centre. Agricultural product processing and manufacturing are important.Aligarh is an important business centre of Uttar Pradesh and is most famous for its lock industry. Aligarh locks are exported across the World. In 1870, Johnson & Co. was the first English lock firm in Aligarh. In 1890, the company initiated production of locks on a small scale here.
Aligarh has several popular landmarks. One is Aligarh Fort. The Dor fortress (1524), now in ruins, lies at the city's centre; its site is in the area now called Upper Kot and is occupied by an 18th-century mosque.Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences at Tijara House is another sightseeing place where one can see a library on the history of medicine and history of science and a museum on Indian heritage and culture. It was built by Unani Physician and philanthropist Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman.The Annual Cultural Exhibition, popularly known as Numaish, is held at the exhibition ground in January and February.
Places of Worship
Another landmark is Sir Syed Masjid in Aligarh Muslim University's campus.The city contains tombs of Muslim saints. Aligarh has a very renowned tomb, Baba Barchi Bahadur, at Kath Pula.Another old Jain temple with fresco painted ceilings is located behind Khirni Gate Police Chowky at Agra Road in the main City.One famous Jainism Teerth Dhaam "Mangalayatan Teerth Dhaam" was built at Agra Road.
Markets and Shopping
Notable markets of Aligarh include the Centre Point Market, Railway Road Market, Phool chorha, Halwai khana (Swagat dalsave, Jai shiv sweets, Rahul sweets), Jamalpur Market, Shamshad Market, Mahavir Ganj, (Houseking Locks) Mohammad Ali Road,Upper Fort (known as Uppar Kot),is the best place for shopping for brand Locks.Tasweer Mahal and Amir Nisha. Centre Point Market is the best place for shopping for brand enthusiasts.Railway Road and Amir Nisha markets are the major shopping hubs. Shamshad Market and Achal Tal Market are noted for educational book stores. Mahavir Ganj has a grocery focus.
Aligarh is well-connected to other cities. The Grand Trunk Road, passes through Aligarh on its way to Bengal. The two main bus terminals are the Masoodabad Bus Terminal and Gandhi Park Bus Terminal. Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (UPSRTC) buses serve cities all over the state and cities in Uttranchal, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Haryana. Aligarh Junction is the primary railway station for Aligarh city and is a major stop on the Delhi-Kolkata route. It connects Aligarh to the states of West Bengal, Orissa, Bihar, Jharkhand, north-east and most of Uttar Pradesh, and important cities such as New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Bhopal, Gwalior, Lucknow, Jhansi, Puri, Kanpur, Agra, Varanasi and Jaipur. The station runs about 70 Mail/ Express/ E.M.U Trains daily. A third railway line between Aligarh and Ghaziabad has development. The 106.15-km line cost Rs 400 crore.